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When the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States and residents of that region became U. In 1863 the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in what is now Maricopa County, to the northwest of modern Phoenix. Army created Fort Mc Dowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Native American uprisings.At the time Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated: the land was within Yavapai County, which included the major town of Prescott to the north of Wickenburg. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, which was the first non-native settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam.The first dam constructed under the act, Salt River Dam#1, began in 1903.It supplied both water and electricity, becoming the first multi-purpose dam, and Roosevelt himself attended the official dedication on May 18, 1911.The Hohokam also carried out extensive trade with the nearby Anasazi, Mogollon and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations.
Lord Darrell Duppa, one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization.They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, squash, lentils, sugar cane, and melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants, such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, and mesquite candy (sap from the mesquite tree).They also hunted local game such as deer, rabbit, and javelina for meat. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory.Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area, also known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is a part of the Salt River Valley.The metropolitan area is the 12th largest by population in the United States, with approximately 4.73 million people as of 2017 Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with many of the original crops, such as alfalfa, cotton, citrus, and hay, remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades.In response, the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce was organized on November 4, 1888.With the arrival of the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railroad in 1895, Phoenix was connected to Prescott, Flagstaff and other communities in the northern part of the territory.The town grew during the 1870s, and President Ulysses S.Grant issued a land patent for the present site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874.The increased access to commerce expedited the city's economic rise.The year 1895 also saw the establishment of Phoenix Union High School, with an enrollment of 90.